Forms and Media
Crossings between literature and the visual arts abound in this period. “The Poet” became a subject of painting for Chagall and Modigliani, while poets often aspired to be painters—including Apollinaire, who initially gave the title I, Too, Am a Painter to his visual poetry collection, Calligrammes. Dialogues between artists and writers resulted in innovative interpretations of the illustrated book, such as the collaborations that French poet Blaise Cendrars established with both Sonia Delaunay and Fernand Léger. Formal experimentation was diverse, ranging from the intense subjectivity of the German Expressionists of Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter to Georges Braque’s and Pablo Picasso’s Cubist depictions of everyday objects.