The opening to the world made possible by Modernism was both thwarted and rekindled by the First World War. The Great War was the first to gain the denomination “World War,” marking its cataclysmic significance. The bloodshed of conflicting nationalisms had a lasting effect on artists and writers. Many of them fought in the War, including Guillaume Apollinaire (who was wounded and later died from the Spanish flu), Henri Gaudier-Brzeska (who was killed in Verdun), Blaise Cendrars (who lost his right arm), Wyndham Lewis, Fernand Léger, Otto Dix, and Max Beckmann. National allegiances conflicted with the sense of interconnectedness that dominated before the War—the war poems of Apollinaire are characteristic in this respect. Some of the magazines published during the war, such as L’Elan and Le Mot, reveal the tension between a modernist aesthetic that is open to internationalism and patriotic loyalty to one’s own country. The War also fed a renewed rejection of nationalism, as in the case of the Dadaist movement and, later, the Surrealist movement.