The Devi Mahatmya is a Hindu text that centers on the goddess Durga’s fight against evil. "Devi" means "goddess" in Sanskrit, and the text is one of the earliest surviving works of literature to focus on a female Hindu deity. Durga is the mother goddess in the Hindu pantheon. She is depicted as having multiple arms, allowing her to protect those in every direction. In both of these paintings, Durga is seated on a magnificent lion. The first painting depicts her holding an audience with a group of gods, including the elephant-headed god Ganesha and the four-headed god Brahma. The second painting depicts Durga in full battle mode, arms swirling, hands clasping an array of weapons, and demons falling to their bloody deaths all around her.