Butler Papers. Collection includes Biographical Notes and Hints on a Method for Outdoor Painting by Howard Russell Butler; Known Locations of Paintings by Howard Russell Butler; N.A. by Howard Russell Butler Jr.; letters, notes, clippings, catalogues and other materials. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
What Is an Eclipse
- Littmann, Mark, Fred Espenak, and Ken Willcox. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun. 3rd edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Expeditions That “Discovered” the Sun
- The Bent (Spring 2003).
- Bell, Trudi E. “The Eclipse Chasers.” Griffith Observer (June 2001).
- Bell, Trudi E. “Ingenuity in the Moon’s Shadow.” The Sciences (November/December 1999).
- For more information about Princeton University’s involvement in eclipse expeditions see: https://blogs.princeton.edu/mudd/2012/11/penumbral-eclipse-of-the-heart/
August 21, 2017, Eclipse Expedition to Salem Oregon
- See the website for expeditions at http://web.williams.edu/Astronomy/eclipse/ ; and for the Working Group on Eclipses of the International Astronomical Union, see http://eclipses.info.
- Pasachoff, Jay M., Ronald Dantowitz, and Aristeidis Voulgaris. “Structure, Dynamics, and Spectra of the Solar Corona at the 2013 and 2015 Total Eclipses and Plans for 2017’s American Totality.” American Astronomical Society (January 2016), 105.02.
- Pasachoff, J. M., and R. J. M. Olson, “The 1918 Eclipse Mural Series by Howard Russell Butler for the American Museum of Natural History and the Hayden Planetarium.”
In Inspiration of Astronomical Phenomena VIII: City of Stars, insap.org, edited by B. P. Abbott. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 501. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2015.,
- Pasachoff, J. M., V. Rušin, M. Saniga, et al. “Structure and Dynamics of the 13/14 November 2012 White-Light Corona.” Astrophysical Journal 800, 90 (2015).
- Pasachoff, J. M., and R. J. M. Olson. “Art of the Eclipse.” Nature 506 (April 17, 2014): 314–15.
- Pasachoff, Jay M., Muzhou Lu, Allen B. Davis, et al. “Coronal Dynamics at Recent Total Solar Eclipses.” American Geophysical Union (2014) (SH007) 17565, SH41B-4144.
- Pasachoff, Jay M., Allen B. Davis, Marek Demianski, et al. “Imaging and Spectra of the Chromosphere and Corona at the 2013 Total Eclipse in Gabon.” Solar Physics Division/224th AAS Meeting, Boston, 2014, 323.16.
- Voulgaris, Aris, Paul Gaintatzis, John H. Seiradakis, et al. “Spectroscopic Coronal Observations during the Total Solar Eclipse of 11 July 2010.” Solar Physics 278 (1) (2012): 187–202. http://arxiv.org/abs/1202.1535; doi: 10.1007/s11207-012-9929-4
- Pasachoff, Jay M., Vojtech Rušin, Hana Druckmüllerová, et al. “Structure and Dynamics of the 11 July 2010 Eclipse White-Light Corona.” Astrophysical Journal 734 (2011): 114–23. http://stacks.iop.org/0004-637X/734/114; doi:10.1088/0004-637X/734/2/114
- Pasachoff, Jay M.,Vojtech Rušin, Metod Saniga, et al. “Structure and Dynamics of the 22 July 2009 Eclipse White-Light Corona.” Astrophysical Journal 742 (2011): 29–42. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/742/1/29
- Pasachoff, Jay M., Allen B. Davis, Marek Demianski, Vojtech Rusin, Metod Saniga, Daniel B. Seaton, Pavlos Gaintatzis, Aristeidis Voulgaris, Robert Lucas, Zophia Edwards, Michael Zeiler, Michael Kentrianakis, 2014, "Imaging and Spectra of the Chromosphere and Corona at the 2013 Total Eclipse in Gabon," Solar Physics Division/224th AAS Meeting, Boston, 323.16.
- Pasachoff, Jay M., Vojtech Rusin, Miloslav Druckmüller, Peter Aniol, Metod Saniga, Milan Minarovjech, 2009, "The 2008 August 1 Eclipse Solar-Minimum Corona Unraveled," Astrophys. J. 702, 1297-1308.
- Pasachoff, Jay M., Muzhou Lu, Allen B. Davis, Marek Demianski, Vojtech Rusin, Metod Saniga, Daniel B. Seaton, Robert Lucas, Bryce A. Babcock, Ron Dantowitz, and Pavlos Gaintatzis, 2014, "Coronal Dynamics at Recent Total Solar Eclipses," American Geophysical Union (SH007) 17565, SH41B-4144.
- Pasachoff, Jay M., Ronald Dantowitz, and Aristeidis Voulgaris, 2016, "Structure, Dynamics, and Spectra of the Solar Corona at the 2013 and 2015 Total Eclipses and Plans for 2017's American Totality," American Astronomical Society/January, 105.02.
- Pasachoff, Jay M., Vojtech Rusin, Miloslav Druckmüller, et al. “The 2008 August 1 Eclipse Solar-Minimum Corona Unraveled.” Astrophysical Journal 702 (2009): 1297–1308.
How to Photograph the Eclipse
Art Captures Perception That Explains the Corona
- Woo, Richard. “The Art and Sciences of Total Eclipses.” American Scientist (July–August 2016): 208–211.
- Woo, Richard. “Coronal Streamers Revealed During Solar Eclipses: Seeing is Not Believing, and Pictures can Lie.” i-Perception 2 (2011): 565-568. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3485804/pdf/i-perception-2-565.pdf
- Woo, Richard. “Perception of Solar Eclipses Captured by Art Explains How Imaging Misrepresented the Source of the Solar Wind.” i-Perception 6, no. 6 (2015): 1–6. http://ipe.sagepub.com/content/6/6/2041669515613710.full.pdf+html
- Woo, Richard. “Revealing the True Solar Corona: Imaging may have inadvertently led astrophysicists astray in understanding the sun.” American Scientist 98, no.3 (May–June 2010): 12. http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/postComment.aspx?id=9328&y=2010&no=3&page=11
- Woo, Richard, and Hana Druckmüllerová. “Solar Eclipse Images and the Solar Wind.” Astrophysical Journal, 678 (2008):L149-152.
Where Eclipse Exploration Has Led Us Today: Transits and Exoplanets
The Eclipse Painting of Howard Russell Butler
- Butler, Howard Russell. Painter and Space: or, The Third Dimension in Graphic Art. New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1923.
- Sinclair, R. M. 2012. Howard Russell Butler: Painter extraordinary of solar eclipses. Culture and Cosmos 16:345–355.
- Butler, Howard Russell. “Painting Eclipses and Lunar Landscapes.” Natural History 26, 4 (1926): 356–62. Print.
- American Museum of Natural History. (1919). Natural History. New York, N.Y.: American Museum of Natural History.
Howard Russell Butler’s Notebooks: Description of Butler’s Methodology and Images
- Agoston, G. A. Color Theory and its Application in Art and Design. 2nd ed. Springer Series in Optical Sciences 19, edited by David L. MacAdam. New York: Spring—Verlag Berlin Heidelberg GmbH, 1987.
- Butler, Howard Russell. “Painting Eclipses and Lunar Landscapes.” Natural History v26 (4), pp. 356-362. © American Museum of Natural History, 1926.
- Howard Russell Butler, ‘Painting the Solar Corona. Natural History v19 (3), pp. 264-272. © American Museum of Natural History, March 1919.
- Butler, Howard Russell. Painter and Space, or, the Third Dimension in Graphic Art. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1923.
- Publications of the Leander McCormick Observatory
Howard Russell Butler’s Prominences
- Russell, Howard Butler. “Painting the Solar Corona.” Natural History 19, no. 3 (March 1919): 264-272. See also the Yerkes Observatory photograph that precedes this article.
Others Image Makers in Search of the Un-seeable or Fleeting
- Abbott, Berenice. ed. Julia Van Haaften. Photographer: Berenice Abbott A Modern Vision. “Introduction,” “Photography and Science,” 1939, “The Image of Science,” 1959. The New York Public Library, 1989.
- Bramwell, Valerie, and Robert McCracken Peck. All in the Bones: A Biography of Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins. Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences, 2008.
- Canales, Jimena. “Harold E. Edgerton: ‘Doc’ and His Laboratory Notebooks.” Aperture, No. 211, Curiosity (Summer 2013), pp. 72-3. Aperture Foundation, Inc.: Princeton University Art Museum. Jstor.
- Carillo, Jeffrey. “Animal Locomotion: An Electro-Photographic Investigation of Consecutive Phases of Animal Movements, 1872-1885.” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies, Vol. 34, No. 2, Art through the Pages: Library Collections at the Art Institute of Chicago (2008), pp. 41-42, 93. Art Institute of Chicago.
- Lawrence, Amy. “Counterfeit Motion: The Animated Films of Eadweard Muybridge. Film Quarterly, Vol. 57, No. 2 (Winter 2003-2004), pp. 15-25. University of California Press. Jstor.
- McCarthy, Steve. The Crystal Palace Dinosaurs: The Story of the World's First Prehistoric Sculptures. London: The Crystal Palace Foundation, 1994, 42–43, fig. 66.
- Newhall, Beaumont. “Berenice Abbott, 1898-1991.” American Art, Vol. 6, No. 1 (Winter, 1992), pp. 111-113. University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Jstor.
- Novak, Barbara. “Asher B. Durand and European Art.” Art Journal, Vol. 21, No. 4 (Summer, 1962), pp. 250-254. College Art Association. JSTOR.
- Ott, John. “Iron Horses: Leland Stanford, Eadweard Muybridge, and the Industrialized Eye.” Oxford Art Journal, Vol. 28, No. 3 (2005), pp. 409-428. Oxford University Press. Jstor.
- Peck, H. Daniel. “Unlikely Kindred Spirits: A New Vision of Landscape in the Works of Henry David Thoreau and Asher B. Durand.” American Literary History, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Winter, 2005), pp. 687-713. Oxford University Press. JSTOR.
- “Perich, Candace, Bernice Abbot, Walter Chappell, Harold Edgerton and Albert Richards.” Columbia: A Journal of Literature and Art, No. 29 (winter 1997-98), pp. 69-77. Jstor.
- Vestal, David. Berenice Abbott Photographs. “Introduction.” New York: Horizon Press, 1980. Print.
The Eclipse in Art
- Alma Thomas: A Retrospective of the Paintings. Fort Wayne Museum of Art. San Francisco: Pomegranate.
- Chang, Chris. "Shadowplay." Film Comment 42, no. 1 (2006): 17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/43457175.
- Ferguson, George. Signs and Symbols in Christian Art.
- Foresta, Merry A. A Life in Art: Alma Thomas, 1891–1978. Washington, D.C.: Published for the National Museum of American Art by the Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981.
- Lowenstein, Adam. "Collaborative Spectatorship: The Surrealism of the Stars: From Rose Hobart to Mrs. Rock Hudson." In Dreaming of Cinema: Spectatorship, Surrealism, and the Age of Digital Media, 149-82. Columbia University Press, 2015. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7312/lowe16656.10.
- McCloskey, Barbara. The Exile of George Grosz: Modernism, America, and the One World Order. Oakland: University of California Press, 2015.
- McShine, Kynaston, ed. Joseph Cornell. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, c1980.
- Shine, Mary-Beth. "That Old White Magic." Art Journal 59, no. 2 (2000): 116-18. http://www.jstor.org/stable/778108
- Sill, Gertrude Grace. A Handbook of Symbols in Christian Art. New York : Macmillan, 1975.
- Waldman, Diane. Joseph Cornell: Master of Dream. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2002.
- Northern Lights and Extraterrestrial Subjects. American Museum of Natural History. (1919). Natural History. New York, N.Y.
- American Museum of Natural History. (1921) Natural History. New York, N.Y., p. 204
Imagining the Un-seeable: Early Space Artists—A Timeline
- Miller, Ron. The Art of Space: The History of Space Art, from the Earliest Visions to the Graphics of the Modern Era; forewords by Carolyn Porco and Dan Durda. Minneapolis: Zenith Press, 2014.
- Follow us: @AirSpaceMag on Twitter
The Life and Legacy of Howard Russell Butler
- Boyle, Richard. American Impressionism. Boston: N.Y. Graphic, 1974.
- Butler, Howard Russell. Papers 1903-1934. Princeton Historical Society.
- Butler Papers. Archives of American Art.
- Ewing, Heather. Life of a Mansion: The Story of the Cooper Hewitt Smithsonian Design Museum. New York: Cooper Hewitt Publications, 2014.
- Hay, Ian. The First Hundred Thousand, Being the Unofficial Chronicle of a Unit of "K (1)." Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1916.
- Henzey, Julies-Phillippe. La Normandie et ses Peintres. Paris: Library National.
- Price, Frederic Newlin. Howard Russell Butler (1856–1934). Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1936.
- “Landscape Targets.” The American Magazine of Art 10, 2 (December 1918): 47–48.
- “The Art War Relief.” The American Magazine of Art 10, 2 (December, 1918): 66–67.
- https://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2012/spring/camouflage.html. WWI was also the first time that the U.S. government commissioned artists to capture a war effort: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/remembering-americas-official-artists-war-180952321/?no-ist
- “Military and Naval Training at Princeton” by President John Grier Hibben, Review of Reviews and World's Work, Volume 58, 1919.
- Cornelius, J.R. “The Value of Landscape Targets: Their Use in Musketry, Paintings by Howard Russell Butler,” Scribners, October 1919, pp. 433-439, p. 433
- “Military and Naval Training at Princeton” by John Grier Hibben, Review of Reviews and World's Work, Volume 58, 1919. Also: “give a good account of himself, in a day or so, as compared with the usual method of training which used to take weeks and very often then with only unsatisfactory results.”
- Magazine of Art, Volume 10, American Federation of Arts, 1919. Women contributed to this effort as illustrators and coordinators.
- Magazine of Art, Volume 10, American Federation of Arts, 1919.
- Daily Princetonian, Volume 39, Number 359, 7 June 1918 — PLANS FORMULATED FOR NEW MUSKETRY SCHOOL Will Be Feature of R. O. T. C. Work Under Captain Cornelius.
- Molly Gottschalk, Mar 16th, 2016, “Virtual Reality Is the Most Powerful Medium of Our Time,” artsy.net.
- Howard Russell Butler, Jr. Letter to the Tucson Museum of Art. Contact Susan Dolan for more information.
AMNH Astronomy Hall
- “An Ideal Astronomic Hall,” Natural History v 26 (pp.393-398)
Butler in Princeton
- Johnson, Barbara L. “Dedication of Princeton Battle,” June 9, 1922. (Email from Lisa 2/12/16)
- Papers 1903-1934 Howard Russell Butler at the Princeton Historical Society