Wandering through Streams and Mountains: Landscape Painting in East Asia
This two-part installation highlighting Japan and China focuses on landscape painting, one of the most important art forms of East Asia. Although the word "landscape" best captures the subject matter of the works on view, no such word existed in traditional Japanese or Chinese discourse. In both languages, the genre is called "mountain and water" (Japanese: sansui, Chinese: shanshui 山水, evoking the key components of depictions of nature in East Asian painting.
Two distinct strains of landscape painting developed in Japan by the fourteenth century. One followed the example of the mostly monochromatic landscapes of China's Song dynasty (960-1279). Built on a Chinese tradition, these images nonetheless feature numerous formal innovations, including dramatically pruned pine trees and thick, swirling mists. The other landscape tradition in Japan focused on brilliantly colored scenes quite different from contemporary Chinese works. More ornamental than topographical, these paintings often used thick layers of paint or gold leaf. The latter technique is seen in the pair of screens on display, Tigers and Bamboo, in which majestic tigers emerge from a bamboo grove in an atmospheric haze that dazzles and flickers against a gold ground.
Japanese painters working in both landscape traditions were inspired by the distinctive seasons of their homeland. Often the passing of spring to summer or autumn to winter was depicted within a single image or across a series of screens. Beloved scenic locations, such as that depicted in The Hozu River, seen to your left, were also popular subjects for landscape painters-and remain so to the present day.
Landscape paintings in China often were meant to invite the viewer to mentally travel through the scene. A point of entry into the landscape was provided, often by means of a path or a sliver of land in the foreground. As the scene continues upward (in a hanging scroll) or leftward (in a handscroll), both perspective and scale may change, and the viewer is taken on a journey through mountain and water, time and space.
Landscape emerged as an independent genre in Chinese painting during the tumultuous later years of the Tang dynasty (618-906). As the dynasty crumbled, elites yearned to withdraw to the bucolic setting of their country estates. Painters responded by creating images that reflect the idealized retreats envisioned by their patrons. By the Northern Song dynasty (960- 1127), court painters were producing monumental landscapes whose imposing mountains and intricately arranged streams and trees came to be viewed as visual metaphors for the well-ordered state. The dynasty also saw the rise of painters drawn from the new class of scholar-officials. These talented amateurs further transformed the genre by producing landscapes aimed at expressing their own artistic visions.
After the Song dynasty, painters began to adopt and reinterpret the styles and tropes of earlier artists to the extent that landscape painting in China became largely an artistic dialogue with past masters. Thus, the ultimate inspiration for the landscape painter's natural forms lay not necessarily in an artist's personal experience with rural scenery but in the history of landscape painting itself.
Dainichi Nyorai 大日如来Kamakura period, 1185–1333
Dainichi Nyorai 大日如来, 13th–14th century
The Hozu River (Hozugawa 保津川図)Edo period, 1615–1868
Maruyama Ōkyo 圓山應擧, 1733–1795
The Hozu River (Hozugawa 保津川図), 1772
Willow Trees in Spring StormEdo period, 1615–1868
Maruyama Ōkyo 圓山應擧, 1733–1795
Willow Trees in Spring Storm, ca. 1794
Tigers and BambooEdo period, 1615–1868
Tigers and Bamboo, 18th century
Cranes and Pine Trees in a LandscapeEdo period to Meiji period, 1868–1912, 1615–1868
Kano Hōgai 狩野 芳崖, attributed to, 1828 - 1888
Cranes and Pine Trees in a Landscape, 19th century
Rocky Island: Tanokuchi in Bizen ProvinceEdo period, 1615–1868
Utagawa Hiroshige I 歌川広重, 1797–1858
Rocky Island: Tanokuchi in Bizen Province, mid-19th century
Crows in the MoonlightEdo period or Meiji period, 1615–1868
after Ogata Kōrin 尾形光琳, 1658–1716
Crows in the Moonlight,
Beautiful Scenes of the Four Seasons at a Glancelate Edo period to early Meiji period, 1868–1912, 1615–1868
Kano Eitoku Tatsunobu 狩野永悳立信, 1814–1891
Beautiful Scenes of the Four Seasons at a Glance, 1882
“Little Crow,” Sword of the Minamoto (Kogarasumaru no hitokoshi 小鳥丸の一腰 源) (or Crow, Sword, and Plum Blossoms), from the series “Four Great Clans of Japan” (Shisei no uchi 四性ノ内)Edo period, 1615–1868
Katsushika Hokusai 葛飾北斎, 1760–1849
“Little Crow,” Sword of the Minamoto (Kogarasumaru no hitokoshi 小鳥丸の一腰 源) (or Crow, Sword, and Plum Blossoms), from the series “Four Great Clans of Japan” (Shisei no uchi 四性ノ内), early to mid 19th century
Eight Views of the Xiao and Xiang Rivers (Xiao-Xiang ba jing 瀟湘八景)Southern Song dynasty, 1127–1279
Wang Hong 王洪, active ca. 1131–ca. 1161
Eight Views of the Xiao and Xiang Rivers (Xiao-Xiang ba jing 瀟湘八景), ca. 1150
Peach Blossoms by a Spring River (Tao hua chun shui 桃花春水 )Southern Song dynasty, 1127–1279
Anonymous | colophon: Zhang Daqian 張大千, 1899–1983
Peach Blossoms by a Spring River (Tao hua chun shui 桃花春水 ), undated; 12th to 13th centuries
Remembering Ni Zan's 'Wutong Tree and Bamboo by a Thatched Pavilion' (Yi Ni Yunlin Wu zhu caotang tu 憶倪雲林梧竹草堂圖)Ming dynasty, 1368–1644
Wang Fu 王紱, 1362–1416
Remembering Ni Zan's 'Wutong Tree and Bamboo by a Thatched Pavilion' (Yi Ni Yunlin Wu zhu caotang tu 憶倪雲林梧竹草堂圖), 1408
- Page 1