The Maya erected stone slabs like this sculpture to commemorate historic anniversaries and important cycles of their calendar. This miniature version presents a standing figure whose swirl-eye and frontal shark tooth identify him as the rain god Chahk, or a human impersonator of that important deity. The large serpent held by Chahk represents a conduit to the supernatural realm. From the snake’s open mouth at the top of the stela emerges the head of an ancestor or deity. The upper halves of three humans tumbling downward in front of Chahk may be the penance offered to make the serpent-conduit appear, as suggested by one of the few hieroglyphs at the left and the bottom of the monument that can be read.
Princeton University Art Museum: Handbook of the Collections, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Art Museum, 2013).
Ana García Barrios, "Chaahk, el Dios de la Lluvia, en el Periodo Clásico Maya: Aspectos Religiosos y Políticos" (PhD diss. unpublished, Universidad Compultense de Madrid, 2008).
Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton University Art Museum: Handbook of the Collection, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007).
Stephen D. Houston, David Stuart, and Karl Taube, The Memory of Bones: Body, Being, and Experience among the Classic Maya (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006).
Virginia M. Fields and Dorie Reents-Budet, with contributions by Ricardo Agurcia Fasquelle et al., Lords of Creation: The Origins of Sacred Maya Kingship (London: Scala; Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 2005).
Allen Rosenbaum, "'Gillett and Me': How a Eurocentric Museum Director Learned to Love Pre-Columbian Art," Record of the Princeton University Art Museum 64 (2005): 8-19.
Stephen D. Houston, "Into the Minds of Ancients: Advances in Maya Glyphs Studies", Journal of world prehistory 14, no. 2 (2000).
"Acquisitions of the Art Museum 1999," Record of the Art Museum, Princeton University 59, no. 1/2 (2000): p. 70-101.
Flora Clancy, Sculpture in the Ancient Maya Plaza: The Early Classic Period (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999).
Jill Guthrie, ed., In celebration: works of art from the Collections of Princeton Alumni and Friends of The Art Museum, Princeton University, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Art Museum, 1997).
Michael D. Coe and Justin Kerr, The Art of the Maya Scribe (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997).
Khristaan D. Villela and Linda Schele, "Astronomy and the Iconography of Creations Among the Classic and Colonial Period Maya," in Palenque Round Table X, ed. Merle Greene Robertson (San Francisco: Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, 1996), 31-44
Linda Schele and David Freidel, A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya (New York: William Morrow, 1990).
Linda Schele, Peter Mathews, and Floyd Lounsbury, Redating the Hauberg Stela (Texas Notes on Precolumbian Art, Writing, and Culture, 1990).
Linda Schele, "The Hauberg Stela: Bloodletting and the Mythos of Classic Maya Rulership," in Fifth Palenque Round Table, 1983, ed. Merle Greene Robertson (San Francisco: Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, Fifth Palenque Round Table, vol. VII, 1985).
David Stuart, "Blood Symbolism in Maya Iconography," in Maya Iconography, eds. Elizabeth P. Benson and Gillett G. Griffin (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988): 175-221.
Linda Schele and Mary E. Miller, The Blood of Kings: Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art (New York and Fort Worth, George Braziller, Inc. and Kimbell Art Museum, 1986).
John Justeson, The Chronological Portion of a Late Preclassic Maya Stela and the Early Development of the Maya Eclipse Calendar (Manuscript circulated September 1982).
Linda Schele, Maya Glyphs: The Verbs (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982)
Elizabeth Easby and John Scott, Before Cortes: Sculpture of Middle America (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970).
An Educated Eye: The Princeton University Art Museum Collection (Friday, February 22, 2008 - Sunday, June 15, 2008)
Unexpected Journey: Gillett G. Griffin and the Art of the Ancient Americas at Princeton (May 7 - June 26, 2005)
In Celebration: Works of Art from the Collections of Princeton Alumni and Friends of the Art Museum (Saturday, February 22, 1997 - Sunday, June 08, 1997)
The Blood of Kings: Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art (May 17 - December 14, 1986)
Before Cortés: Sculpture of Middle America (September 30, 1970 - January 3, 1971)